Gatha Cognition®
Perception, Learning and Reasoning
de natura animae psychologiae principia mathematica et philosophyae naturalis
de natura animae psychologiae principia mathematica et philosophyae naturalis
Nature of the Soul Psychology: Mathematical Principles and Natural Philosophy

1.Chairman of Psychology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Lisbon (Emeritus) Director, Department of Psychiatry of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon (Emeritus); 2. Coordinator of the Area of Mental Health Psychology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine of Lisbon (Emeritus); 3. Active member of the Center for Philosophy of Science of the University of Lisbon (CFCUL), Lisbon

1) UNESCO Chair in Intangible Heritage and Traditional Know-how: Linking Heritage, University of Évora, Portugal ; and 2) Center of Philosophy of Science, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Gatha Cognition
Gatha Cognition Free Publication
Cross Referance

about book


A model of Boolean function was implemented by helping the subjects to press a button only in the case of crossed sinusoids and of white noise. A model of an equivalence function was built this way and its complement was represented by horizontal and vertical sinusoid. Records were made and their fourier transformed were calculated for each of the four considered situations (two sinusoids, one sinusoid vertical and one sinusoid horizontal and white noise), using multi-varied statistics, stepwise comparisons, a multi-varied analysis was plotted on two axis. Then it was verified that each couple of the configurations modelling the Boolean function occupied a similar position in one axis and the other couple on the other. So to speak, conditioned and not-conditioned conditions were differentiated along the first axis, and formal differences between each couple of stimuli that was represented by differences in the second axis.

Author used another conceptual tool, connotative logic and substituted sentences of common language by equivalent propositions, written accordingly with this logic of signification for more detailed and closes interpretation in psychological terms of the mental processes.

We make the conclusion depend on both connotative references and analytical argument. So, we have here to criteria for truth: (a) analytical truth and (b) connotative referential truth. Considering now another operation, for instance, negation, we may have two possibilities: either the negation include all the components of the propositions, or only a part. In this case, an alternative exists in which the original proposition is not completely denied but rather the proposition is transformed into a fuzzy relationship. The same analysis can be made concerning all the alternatives for binary or else anodic relationships and this represents a conceptual departure of conceptual distancing from the purely analytical approach to logics.


José Luis Simoes da Fonseca

José Luis Simoes da Fonseca was born in Lisbon on 11 December 1932. He completed the course of high schools in the Camoes Liceu with the classification of 17 values. He completed a degree in Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon with a rating of 16 points. In 1970 he obtained a doctorate with a thesis entitled "neural bases of mental life", with the classification of 19 values. In 1978 he held the evidence of aggregation in Psychiatry. Was integrated member of CFCUL, which benefited greatly, not only from its huge scientific competence, and especially his passion for knowledge and discussion of ideas.

Book Call For Book