The term ‘sex workers’ refers to those involved in prostitution. This particular term is preferred as it does not have the derogatory, sexist connotation that the term ‘prostitute’ has. Belonging to a highly stigmatized profession with no financial and familial support forthcoming, the latter years of the lives of destitute female sex workers are spent in abject misery and poverty. Effort has been made to study the socio economic status and the ways adopted by these women, post active prostitution period, to support themselves and their families. This paper is based on the field study conducted in central Delhi red light area during August-September, 2016. Direct interviews with the respondents using questionnaires as well as participant observation techniques were used to collect the data. The study indicate that destitute female sex workers, once out of active prostitution, start working as domestic helpers, work with local voluntary organizations, or as helpers in brothels. The income earned is very meager with hardly any amount left to be saved. Most of the women live in one room rented accommodations. Their access to medical facilities was found to be extremely restricted.
Every commodity or goods has intake of water i.e. either in processing or furnished stage. Thus, the present study propensities macro-level (states-level) water footprint (WFP) assessment of selected eight crops namely, Wheat, Barley, Maize, Millets, Rice, Sorghum, Soybeans and Tea. The aim of present research is to assess water use in selected crops at field level. In addition, the spatial evaluation at state level also considered as one of the significant objective to understand regional disparity and/or similarly. Methodology and approach of assessment was adopted from Water Footprint Assessment Manual (2011). Data was collected from state Agricultural Directorate, National Bureau of Soil Survey and landuse, published reports and online database such as FAOSTAT, WMO, WFN, and agriculture census. Results show that green component of WFP contributes large fraction as about 72 percent, while blue and grey component amounted of about 19 and 9 percent of the total water consumption, respectively. Moreover, spatial variability of blue, green and grey among the states assimilated by soil regime and climate barriers. Supply of blue water is high where the region imparted to semi-arid or arid land. Consequently, a balanced approach between green and blue water use has been recommended in the present study to address increasing water demand in the future.
The present paper looks at the history of development and empowerment and discusses the impediments to development and empowerment in India. It focuses on the three major issues in India today, namely, the attitude towards, Girl child, Gender violence and Globalization, which have to be dealt with as a priority in bringing out the development and empowerment of women in the present era. If we look back into the history about the discussions and debates related to the issue of development and empowerment, we can see some broad trends. The whole debate on development states that there were number of women who organized and mobilizing around the globe for their rights. The development planners and policy makers did not have any interaction with these groups and they considered feminism as irrelevant to development and it was viewed as a luxury for the better of women in the industrialized countries. Hence, the first stage, main stream development models gave rise to jargons like, “basic human needs”, “meeting the needs of the poorest of poor”, “growth with equity”. This phase viewed development as an administrative problem whose solution lay in transferring vast amount of resources and technological innovations from rich to poor countries. As compensation to this followed, integrating women into the development process. Education and employment as a means of income generation became indicators of women’s involvement in the development process, but again under this phase a large chunk of rural women were left behind. Today women have addressed the question of development from a feminist perspective. They have raised important questions on issues of child care, reproductive rights, violence against women, family planning, transfer of technology and rural development and given the concept of development a new meaning. If development leads only to an increase in production, then it tends to reinforce and exaggerate the imbalances and inequalities within and in between societies. Development has to be an integral process with economic, social and cultural aspects leading to the control of one’s life situation.
The spatiotemporal variation of surface soil moisture is a key subject variable need to be assessed accurately since it plays a crucial role in partitioning of rainfall into runoff and infiltration. Active microwave remote sensing has offered prominent potential towards accurate estimation of surface soil moisture. Present study utilizes ERS-2 SAR image for estimating surface soil moisture by incorporating the effect of topography, vegetation and surface roughness over three land cover types namely; sugarcane, wheat and barren land through Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) approach. Five independent variables considered for MLR analysis include backscatter coefficient (\(σ^0\) ), local incidence angle (\(α_i\)), surface roughness height (\(h_s\)), Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Plant Water Content (PWC), respectively. Results indicate retrieval of soil moisture within ± 20% accuracy for all the three land cover types with higher accuracy for barren land (i.e. R2 ~ 0.78 and RMSE = 1.31) as compared to the other two land cover types (i.e. sugarcane; R2 ~ 0.67 and RMSE = 3.60 and wheat; R2 ~ 0.72 and RMSE = 1.94). The present study reveals the effectiveness of MLR approach in the retrieval of surface soil moisture using fewer numbers of variables.
Landsat TM and ETM+ datasets are useful for forest change detection (FCD) at good accuracy level. Classified forest maps have been prepared using NDVI calculated from Landsat-5 TM (2009) and Landsat-7 ETM+ (2002) datasets for FCD using post-classification technique. About 58.59% of reviewed area shows positive changes, 33.69% no-changes and 7.72% negative changes with 77.84% accuracy. This accuracy insists limitations of present FCD analysis. Therefore, improved post-classification technique was formulated for precise FCD using field data and statistical techniques. Information about stable land surface (water bodies, rocky lands, deep forests, etc.) was used for normalisation of exaggerated reflectance in vegetation indices i.e. greenness. About 70.08% land estimated using second approach shows stable vegetation, 23.59% positive changes and 6.33% negative changes. Higher accuracy (95.21%) itself shows improvement in FCD technique and efficient applicability for sustainable land management.