Landsat TM and ETM+ datasets are useful for forest change detection (FCD) at good accuracy level. Classified forest maps have been prepared using NDVI calculated from Landsat-5 TM (2009) and Landsat-7 ETM+ (2002) datasets for FCD using post-classification technique. About 58.59% of reviewed area shows positive changes, 33.69% no-changes and 7.72% negative changes with 77.84% accuracy. This accuracy insists limitations of present FCD analysis. Therefore, improved post-classification technique was formulated for precise FCD using field data and statistical techniques. Information about stable land surface (water bodies, rocky lands, deep forests, etc.) was used for normalisation of exaggerated reflectance in vegetation indices i.e. greenness. About 70.08% land estimated using second approach shows stable vegetation, 23.59% positive changes and 6.33% negative changes. Higher accuracy (95.21%) itself shows improvement in FCD technique and efficient applicability for sustainable land management.
The geomorphic effectiveness of floods is evaluated in terms of unit stream power (\(\omega\)) and boundary shear stress (\(\tau\)) for floods on the Par River. The highest values for \(\omega\) and \(\tau\) for a flood on the river are 52125 W/m2 and 3320 N/m2, respectively. The estimated Froude numbers are <1 indicating subcritical flows. It is >1 for a few constricted reaches showing supercritical or shooting flows. High values of Reynolds number reveal that the flood discharges were extremely turbulent. Values of critical velocity for the inception of cavitation (Vc) show that none of the powerful floods on the river, except two, exceed the conditions. Estimates of \(\omega\), \(\tau\) and velocity associated with transported boulders indicate that all floods were competent to move large boulders of more than 5.5 m in diameter. The efficiency of high-magnitude flood events is evident from the presence of a variety of geomorphic features.
The study presents an approach to map Land Use / Land Cover Change (LULCC) at large scale and processing techniques that permit higher accuracy. IRS RESOURCESAT-2 LISS-IV images of Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh were used to apply the classification technique. In multi-scale feature extraction approach LULCC takes two forms i.e. conversion from one category of LULCC to another and modification of condition within a category. Thus, major LULCC classes were extracted using object based approach and uncertain classes were identified using onscreen knowledge based method. The results showed in 2009, the accuracy of cropland, water body and built-up segments were 99.3%, 94.79% and 89.72%, respectively, whereas, in 2013 the accuracies were 94.31%, 88.26% and 81.20%, respectively. Hence, this classification approach can be useful in different landscape structure over the time, which can be quantified and assessed to achieve a better understanding of the land cover.
Unlike many other mainstream disciplines that only seek to broaden knowledge and add to it, and thus become additive, women’s studies tries to question and posit new ways of thinking, inaugurating paradigm shifts and thus becoming subversive by trying to question established hierarchies of knowledge. This has not been an easy journey and the practioners of this new approach have faced numerous odds as all pioneering endeavours encounter. This is a story that needs to be told and the present book attempts to do this by charting the trajectories of eighteen women’s studies scholars and their academic sojourn. These scholars have been confined not just to the traditional dominant hierarchies of knowledge but by their own making, ventured into new areas, which has now emerged from the margins to the forefront and struggled to give women’s studies a visibility.
The first wave of feminism emphasised on women’s emancipation and equality, whereas the second wave focused on female oppressions and struggled for their liberation. The third wave stressed the individual empowerment. 1) The Marxist feminism confined to united struggle for women’s rights. 2) The socialist feminism exposed the gender aspects of welfare state. 3) The liberal feminists struggled for the empowerment and public participation of women, 4)The individual feminism aimed at personal abilities of woman, 5) The career feminism inspired women to free in the ‘World of Men’, 6) The global feminism insisted the boundary breaking activities for women’s empowerment and reorder the rules, 7) The radical feminists bounded to entire change in social structure for equality, 8) The lesbian feminists denied the need of men for existence of women, 9) The black feminists struggled for equality within the races and Dalit within castes, 10) The womanism supported the self-identity and -respect, 11) The cultural feminists and literature explained the cultural roots of discriminations and exploitations of women, 12) The eco-feminists focused on environmental aspects and resources related to women. However, 13) The existentialists are conscious about interdependence. The feministic analyses are active, challenging and important for social welfare.