From the beginning of the twentieth century, topographic maps for the Libyan state carried out by various compilers, where the first mapping was carried out by the Italian Military Geographical Institute, the Soviet Union Military, and the U.S. Army, followed by mapping carried out by the Libyan state from the 1950s to the 2000s. Most of these maps have not been digitized and updated using the techniques of geographic information systems and remote sensing. This paper discusses on the objectives, methodology and results of the Libya Topography Project, “Libya Topo” for updating the previously compiled topographical map at scale, 1:250000. Open spatial data from different platforms (OSM, Logistics Cluster, Landsat 8 satellite imagery, and SRTM data, etc.). Also, POIs extracted from previously compiled topographic and geological maps. Spatial database for each UTM zone created to store the features and raster. As for the cartographic style, the map layout adopted is the style of the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency maps. The results of the project are an update of 121 topographical map sheets using Quantum (GIS), those will be freely available for the interested users on request (e.g., environmentalists, academics, and university students, etc.).
The Pangal community is one of the indigenous communities in Manipur state which lies at the north eastern corner of India. The representation of Pangal women and their condition in terms of polity, society and economy through the lens of feminist perspective in Manipur is minimal and extended to the village/local level only. The paper tries to answer in an integrated way some of the pertinent questions in respect of Pangal women. In this context, an attempt has been made to explore the historical background of the origin of Pangal in Manipur. This paper has also attempted to critically examine the economic, political and social conditions of Pangal women in the light of feminist point of view from the medieval to the post-colonial periods.
In a time of great uncertainties, the world witnesses, for the very first instance in its modern history a global lockdown spanning over all the vital spheres of economic and social life. At this point, when neither leaving home nor staying is an option, the surge to exponentially study the manner in which human life has evolved and been shaped under such circumstances gained valuable interest, especially within the circles of feminist and human rights-based academia. Respectively, researchers argue that the weight of the lockdown and movement restriction policies fall discriminately on men and women as they are interestingly leading such novel experiences in different ways. Men, by having no concern mounting to the priority of protecting themselves from being inflicted by this global pandemic and maintaining their economic roles as the traditional family providers, and women on the margin side of the picture, having to deal with the burden of surviving the dangers that the outside and the inside worlds akin dispose. Henceforth, this article is an attempt to probe the dynamics of the private sphere considering the intersections between oppression, seclusion and violence and the development of new dynamics of resistance by transposing from the early 20th century’s feminine experience of confinement and the 21st century’s global lockdown in the time of the Covid-19 pandemic. This research considers the stories presented by the renowned Moroccan sociologist and author “Fatima Mernissi”, who herself lived a different kind of seclusion behind the colossal and skillfully ostentatious walls of the harem of the city of Fez in the forties of the previous century and this shall be done mainly by reviewing the stories of resistance presented in her memoir Dreams of Trespass: Tales of a Harem Girlhood; and by considering the stories of five respondents who have shared with us their accounts through various social media outlets upon the surge of the pandemic in Morocco. The purpose here is to unravel the convergences between women’s experiences of gender-based violence (GBV) in both confinements and to foreground the value, significance and challenges these feminine insights being in them simple acts of everyday life constitute in establishing a discourse of resistance and feminine empowerment vis-à-vis patriarchy, seclusion and gender-based violence1.
The aim of present study is to find out suitable sites for solid waste disposal (SWD) in the tropical moist sub-humid region of Bolpur municipality, Birbhum district, West Bengal, India using Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques. Saaty’s AHP technique was used to delineate the suitable sites for SWD using thematic layers such as land use/land cover, geology, slopes and soils. The ranks were assigned for each individual sub-criterion of thematic layers and weights assigned to each thematic layer for selection of suitable sites for SWD using Arc-GIS environment. Possible landfill sites were categorized into five classes as highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitable and unsuitable. About 16.43% (1.97 km2) and 28 % (3.42 km2) area in the region show as highly suitable and suitable sites for SWD, respectively. On the other hand, 39.13 % (4.69 km2), 9.49 % (1.14 km2) and 6.38% (0.77km2) area show moderately suitable, less suitable and unsuitable for solid waste dumping.
Changing climate and land-use practices influencing the natural stream flow processes in the Naryn river basin of Kyrgyzstan. Variations in stream flow regime over 33-years (1980 to 2012) were investigated using daily discharge data of three hydro-stations (Naryn, Ych-Terek and Uzunakmat), located in the Naryn River Basin. Mean monthly discharge (MMD), mean annual discharge (MAD), standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated to know the spatio-temporal variability. Similarly, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was used to know the relationship between discharge and rainfall. Advanced time-series graph, exceedance probability and frequency distribution were computed using Hydrognomon (V.4.0.3) software to observe the variability and trends in discharge. The results from statistical calculations and software-based computations highlight the monthly, annual, and long term spatio-temporal discharge variability, extreme events, distribution and changes in stream flow records. This study preciously creates the frequency and trends of seasonal discharge, annual discharge cycle, and range of highest and lowest discharge ﬂows. The weak and negative relationship (-0.2121, -0.4238) between rainfall and discharge propose for more investigation of climatic parameters and the topography of Tian Shan Mountain perhaps influencing discharge variability due to melting of glacier at high altitude. The ﬂow regime of the Naryn river basin over the past 33-years perhaps changed due to climatic fluctuations, with the seasonal snowmelt timing (Post-Spring, Summer, Pri-Autumn), precipitations period (March-October), and large-scale land-use alterations.